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Vse bolj spoznavam, da je stvar tako kompleksna, da bom ta prispevek razdelil na dve polovici. V prvi podajam okvir, ki naj omogoča razumevanje sinodalne poti ter njenih raznovrstnih učinkov, v drugem pa se bom osredotočil na nedavni verbalni zaplet med prof. Rahnerjevo ter škofom Osterjem. Iz slednjega se je sredi izrednih ideoloških pritiskov vendar rodil prijeten sad Svetega Duha, ki ga lahko zlahka vzamem tudi za svojega. V končni fazi pa si nadejam še kakšno prijetno presenečenje, ki me bo spodbudilo k nadaljevanju pisanja.

Nemška sinodalna pot me vznemirja že od samega začetka. Začelo se je seveda doma, kjer vse od njenega začetka goreče molimo zanjo ter za vse njene udeležence. Nanje kličemo vodstvo Svetega Duha. Tako rekoč ves čas njenega dogajanja na nas padajo različne novice, ki nam v danem trenutku jemljejo mir in upanje, a ne se damo. Dogajanja in oseb sploh ne komentiramo, temveč v zaupanju molimo. Ni pa tako pri katoličanih izven Nemčije, ki jih srečujem in ki slišijo, da živim v Nemčiji. V preteklih dveh letih je to neugoden, če ne celo škandalozen podatek. Slišal sem že vse: brate duhovnike, ki so se porogljivo izražali o Cerkvi v Nemčiji, ali ki so se obregnili nad menoj … samo zato, ker živim v Nemčiji. Dizi v filmu V leru je ob takšni situaciji polglasno rekel: Svašta! Slišal sem tudi številne brate in sestre v Kristusu, živeče izven Nemčije, ki so me z zanimanjem spraševali o stanju sinode ter zagotovili svoje molitve zanjo. Ob vsem tem mi predvsem ne diši ena stvar: ne pripadam nobeni stranki in nisem na nobenem bregu. Sem v Cerkvi in jo ljubim, vključno z vsem kar dokončno in nezmotljivo uči. Verujem tudi, da Sveti Duh svoji Cerkvi v vsakršni zagati podarja svojo rešitev.

Konec septembra 2018 se je v Nemčiji končala obsežna večplastna in večletna raziskava spolnih zlorab s strani predstavnikov katoliške Cerkve. Projekt in njegova dognanja so razumljivo postala temeljni vir za nemško sinodalno pot (Der synodale Weg), okvir in metodo dveletne strukturirane interne debate v katoliški Cerkvi, ki so jo odprli 1. decembra 2019. Nemška škofovska konferenca (DBK) in Centralni svet katoličanov v Nemčiji (ZdK), ki skupaj nosita odgovornost za sinodo, sta želela poleg imenovane tematike vključiti še druge, za Cerkev v Nemčiji aktualne teme in vprašanja. Ta namera je vodila v prvi cikel pripravljalnega dela, ki je že postregel z določenim okusom, z določeno smerjo. V tem trenutku sta iz Svetega sedeža prišla dve ključni intervenciji: papeževo pismo nemškemu božjemu ljudstvo ter komentar Kongregacije za škofe, naslovljen na kardinala Marxa, takratnega predsednika Škofovske konference.

Konec junija 2019 je papež Frančišek pisal romajočemu božjemu ljudstvu v Nemčiji, v katerem je – razen vljudnostnih in spodbudnih besed – pod vprašaj postavil pretirano ukvarjanje z notranjo strukturo Cerkve ter opozoril na nujnost spraševanja o oznanjujoči naravi Cerkve. Četudi so bile v pripravljalnih ekipah osebnosti, ki so ti to (zelo) želele, je bila končna odločitev pripravljalnega telesa sinode jasna: papežu so se zahvalili za pisanje, pri vsebini in metodi pa niso spremenili ničesar. Nakar je prišel še drugi dokument. Kardinal Ouellet, prefekt Kongregacije za škofe, je septembra 2019 kardinala Marxa, predsednika nemške škofovske konference, opozoril, da razen nekaj izjem zastavljena sinoda v Nemčiji nima oblasti oblikovanja sklepov in sprejemanja odločitev. Kardinal Marx je s spretno oblikovanim odgovorom opozorilo zavrnil ter, podobno kot v odzivu na papeževo pisanje, napovedal, da bodo v Nemčiji šli svojo predvideno pot. V končni fazi so se Nemci odločili za štiri teme, imenovane tudi sinodalni forumi: 1) moč in delitev oblasti v Cerkvi, 2) duhovništvo danes, 3) ženske v služenju in strukturah Cerkve, ter 4) življenje v uspešnih odnosih – o ljubezni v spolnih in partnerskih odnosih. Skratka, pripombe in opozorila s strani Svetega sedeža niso le preslišali, temveč so se odločili, da jih ne upoštevajo. Resda niso bili izven pravil ali zakonodaje, koraki so bili povsem legalni. Po drugi strani pa sta reakciji na pisanje Svetega sedeža izrazila temeljnega duha, v katerem se je sinoda ne samo začenjala, temveč se je bila tudi spočela: neposlušnost. Z drugimi besedami, nosilci sinode odločili, da središčne razsežnosti sinode, preprosto ne želijo živeti.

Naša duhovniška skupnost je to dejstvo od vsega začetka sprejela z veliko nelagodnostjo in potrtostjo. Obenem smo se, kot rečeno, odločili, da ljudi ne bomo sodili ter da dogajanja ne bomo prehitro komentirali. Sploh ne zaradi nekakšne naivnosti ali bega v pretirano duhovnost. Pač pa iz odločitve, da zaupamo v Svetega Duha in v njegovo vodstvo, ki lahko posreduje, četudi si njegovi tega niti ne želijo. Kljub vsemu, okrog sinode ostajajo mnoge skrbi in celo strah, da bi lahko prišlo do resnih težav. Zgodovina Cerkve jih ima dokumentiranih nemalo. Po drugi strani pa se je pred časom zgodil korak, ki je možen samo v Svetem Duhu in ki me resnično navdušuje.

English

On the German synodal path

I increasingly realize that the matter is so complex that I will split this post into two halves. In the first, I provide a framework that allows for an understanding of the synodal path and its diverse effects, and in the second, I will focus on the recent verbal confrontation between prof. Rahner and Bishop Oster. From the latter, amid extraordinary ideological pressures, however, a pleasant fruit of the Holy Spirit was born, which I can easily take as my own. I hope there will be another pleasant surprise that will encourage me to continue writing on the topic.

The German synodal path has excited me from the very beginning. It started at home, where we have been praying fervently for it and all its participants since its inception. We pray regularly for the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Almost all the time of its events, various news come to us, which at a given moment take away our peace and hope, but we do not give up. We do not comment on events and people at all, but we continue praying in confidence. However, this is not the case with Catholics outside Germany, whom I meet and know that I live in Germany. In the past two years, this is an unfortunate and sometimes even scandalous fact. I have already heard it all: brothers priests who have mockingly spoken about the Church in Germany or who have almost insulted me … just because I live in Germany. I also heard many brothers and sisters in Christ living outside Germany who asked me with interest about the state of the Synod and provided their prayers for it. With all of this, one thing above all doesn’t attract me: I don’t belong to any party, and I’m not on any bank. I am in the Church, and I love it, including everything it teaches definitively and infallibly. I also believe that the Holy Spirit gives his Church solutions in every dilemma.

At the end of September 2018, an extensive multi-layered and multi-year survey on sexual abuse by representatives of the Catholic Church was completed in Germany. The project and its findings have become a fundamental resource for the German Synodal Path (Der synodale Weg), the framework and method of a two-year structured internal debate in the Catholic Church that opened on December 1, 2019. The German Bishops’ Conference (DBK) and the Central Council of Catholics in Germany (ZdK), which are jointly responsible for the Synod, wanted to include other topics and issues of fundamental importance for the Church in Germany in addition to the named case. This intention led to the first cycle of preparatory work, which finished with a particular taste, with a specific direction. At this point, two critical interventions came from the Holy See: the Pope’s letter to the German people of God and the Congregation for Bishops’ commentary addressed to Cardinal Marx, then president of the Bishops’ Conference.

At the end of June 2019, Pope Francis wrote to the pilgrim people of God in Germany, in which – apart from polite and encouraging words – he questioned the excessive reflection on the internal structure of the Church and pointed out the need to question the missionary nature of the Church. Even though there were personalities in the preparatory teams who wanted it (very much), the final decision of the Synod’s preparatory body was clear: they thanked the Pope for writing. They did not change anything in content and method. Then came another document. Cardinal Ouellet, Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, reminded Cardinal Marx, President of the German Bishops’ Conference, in September 2019 that, with a few exceptions, the Synod in Germany, has no conclusion- and decision-making power. Cardinal Marx rejected the warning with a cleverly crafted response and, similarly to the reaction to the Pope’s writing, announced that they would go their intended way in Germany. Ultimately, the Germans opted for four themes, also called synodal forums: 1) power and division of power in the Church, 2) the priesthood today, 3) women in the ministry and structures of the Church, and 4) living in successful relationships – about love in sexual and partnership relations. In short, the remarks and warnings from the Holy See were not only ignored, but the leaders decided not to include them in their work. Admittedly, they were not outside the rules or legislation. The steps were completely legal. On the other hand, the reactions to the writing of the Holy See expressed the fundamental spirit of disobedience in which the Synod began and was conceived. In other words, the bearers of the Synod decided that they would want to live the central dimension of the Synod.

Our priestly community has accepted this fact from the very beginning with great uneasiness and sadness. At the same time, we have decided not to judge people and not comment on the events too quickly. Not at all because of some naivety or escape into excessive spirituality. Rather out of the decision to trust in the Holy Spirit and his leadership, who can intervene even if his people don’t want to. Nevertheless, many worries and even fears that serious problems could arise around the Synod. The history of the Church has many of them documented. On the other hand, some time ago, there was a step done and which is only possible in the Holy Spirit. It was an immense joy.

One comment on “O nemški sinodalni poti

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